America to the highest bidder

…while the nooz is busy distracting the American public with “shutting down the government” nonsense….America is quietly being sold to the highest bidder while taxpayers foot the bill.  Warning: probably not the thing to read while you’re eating.

 

Mark Fiore’s Cartoon of the nasty business:

 

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More dark money in government associated with the Kochs.   More here.   Further proof that the rich are not being taxed enough if they have this kind of money to throw around.

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Latest on the Raw Milk Wars.

Again, a person has a right to decide what goes into their body.  Right to Privacy.

A dairy farmer in my area told me that he drank raw milk every morning.  This was before my own education on it, and I was aghast that he would risk his health drinking unpasteurized milk.  Haha.  He was one wise man.

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Another casualty of 9/11

The once warm relationship between Canada and the United States seems to have been damaged from the fallout of WTC….if you’re going by the border guards treatment of those #%&! foreigners (be they Canadian or American)….

…yet another stoopid loss due to those-that-would-keep-us-safe-by-creating-enemies-of-those-that-once-were-friends….

 

The Pushback against Education profiteers

Fred Klonsky has this up on people making their opinions known of Rahm….and Dick Durbin more worried about image than why people are booing…..

They fail to acknowledge that the closing of public schools but paying $50 million for a new sports arena might be a reason people are pissed off.  The city is on fire….but we’re more worried about fluff than substance.

I have no words.  because partying like it’s 1999 is what all educators should be promoting…./very snarky

Teaching Inequity had a commenter post a link to this on Teach for America and its deficits.

Diane Ravitch has a post up on the growing opposition to Kevin Huffman, the ex-husband of Michelle Rhee.

Someone posted a link to this blog of Momma Bears.  I loved it just from the title alone, but really loved the tenacity behind the post.   Excellent points made about the decision making coming from the top down—number four is especially poignant reminder of taxation without representation.  Notice the Atmosphere of Fear so that even though folks disagree strongly, they won’t speak out because of revenge by those in power (kind of like Mitch Daniels’ reputation for being punitive towards anyone who opposes him).  Number six is also taking it out of local control with people who don’t care about the kids, parents, and teachers affected by their decisions…again taxation without representation.

Department of Human Cattle.  <sigh>  If the teachers feel this way, just imagine how the kids must feel….

And the kids know what is going on:

One child explained those tests as, “the tests everyone had to take to determine who the smart and dumb kids are for Intervention groups.”

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That is just sad that these stupid tests are further isolating kids who are already struggling.  It has to be even more frustrating to be constantly taken out of the regular class to go to “intervention”.    All the kids see the “dumb” kid leave….all of them knowing he or she is not up to speed.  When I got yelled at by the regular teacher for falling behind on her schedule, it was because I was trying to help the kids that weren’t understanding the math lesson for the day.  Knowing what I know now, it could have been the math lesson was too advanced for that grade level.  It could have been because it was my first day and I wasn’t explaining it in a way that they understood.  It could have been that the kids just needed more time to let the lesson soak in, as they say, but No Child Left a Mind/Race to the Bottom are so regimented they don’t have that extra time….we have to move on to the next segment (which is why the teacher yelled at me–not making excuses for her, but it threw her whole schedule off).

Note the preferential treatment to charter school providers that contribute to political campaigns.  It would seem that Indiana is not the only state being run by crooks.

And from the link on the PTA drinking the Gates Kool-Aid after receiving millions in funding:

Receives $1 million grant from Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to engage parents in four states

CHICAGO — – National PTA is positioning itself as a key player at the front line of education reform.  The association today announced a new three-year effort to mobilize parents to advance key education priorities, beginning with common core state standards—a voluntary, state-led, internationally benchmarked set of high academic standards in English language arts and mathematics. A $1 million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation will help support the effort.

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Notice how this is worded:  “key player”  (Very Important Persons);  “front line”  (this is a war, dontcha know);  and of course “education reform” (because we have to make up some term to make the public believe something needs to be done and we know what that something is…) ; “mobilize parents” (sounds like they want parent involvement, eh?  Not so fast–they only want parent involvement of the parents that agree with what they are doing);  “voluntary” anything in this heavy-handed education reform is a misnomer–you either play along or we’ll cut your funding/teachers/close your school by withholding tax dollars.

Taken from the Tea Party playbook:

Stand on Children hires gullible parents to wear free t-shirts at school board meetings and political events.  They’ve chartered buses and taken groups of brand-new-T-shirt-wearing people and adorable kids-in-new-t-shirts (who had no clue that they were props for a political agenda) to Nashville during the legislative session.

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A Wall Streeter explains the gold mine of education…..which has little to do with educating kids and everything to do with makin’ the big bucks.

Funny (or sadly, not)  lines:

…this process inevitably involves siphoning off a few tens of billions from the generous teat of the US taxpayers. But only carpers or whiners could object to the risk-bearing shareholders extracting proper compensation for the hard work of following their stocks on Yahoo and opening their monthly brokerage statements.

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K12…. increasing revenue at an astounding annualized 30% rate since 2008.

(be sure to click on Teach for America co-founder Whitney Tilson link:

[…]  Says shorts have cost him and his investors “a fortune” over the past 4 1/2 years. 

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At the bottom, they hilariously put “send stock tips to” their email addy.  By the way, Price to Earnings is an actual tool for investment–it is a main indicator of how fair a stock was priced according to the company’s performance.

Canadians still being held

The Egyptian authorities are still holding two Canadians in jail.  They have sent word that they were beaten after asking for directions from police.    They had filmed the carnage of 102 people killed and Tarek offered medical assistance to the injured…and that seems to be why they are being held….but they have yet to go before a court.  Meanwhile, they are forced to sleep on concrete floors with cockroaches.

23 chemtrails and counting…

I went outside today — a beautiful sunny day — to take the doggie out.  I look up, and the sky is just plastered with chemtrails.  They have been spraying more and more of them every few days.    I thought about farmers having to work outside all day with that poisonous mixture of barium and other stuff…and wondered if any were raising protests against them.

I found this –– a protest in San Francisco.   Another video here –not too far into it, the guy mentions he had rainwater tested and found high levels of barium and aluminum in it.  I know there are some who are um, “out there” but not all of them.

Others mention how the chemtrails affect rain amounts–causing droughts.  When we were in a drought last year, they were being sprayed in Fort Wayne nearly every.single.day.

More here.

From the report:

“They call it weather modification, which they try to make it sound like a good thing,” Neilson said.

Sion said he has found proof through the U.S. Patent Office that this technology exists.  

“To create artificial clouds of aluminum for solar radiation management,” Sion said. “That’s what it’s purported to be.”

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The Patent given to Hughes Aircraft:

United States Patent

5,003,186

Chang ,   et al.

March 26, 1991


Stratospheric Welsbach seeding for reduction of global warming AbstractA method is described for reducing atmospheric or global warming resulting from the presence of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere, i.e., from the greenhouse effect. Such gases are relatively transparent to sunshine, but absorb strongly the long-wavelength infrared radiation released by the earth. The method incudes the step of seeding the layer of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere with particles of materials characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity. Such materials include Welsbach materials and the oxides of metals which have high emissivity (and thus low reflectivities) in the visible and 8-12 micron infrared wavelength regions.


Inventors: Chang; David B. (Tustin, CA), Shih; I-Fu (Los Alamitos, CA)
Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company (Los Angeles, CA)
Family ID: 24042064
Appl. No.: 07/513,145
Filed: April 23, 1990

Current U.S. Class: 250/505.1 ; 244/158.1; 250/503.1; 250/504R
Current International Class: A01G 15/00 (20060101); G21K 001/00 ()
Current CPC Class: A01G 15/00 (20130101)
Field of Search: 250/505.1,54R,503.1,493.1 244/136,158R

References Cited [Referenced By]


U.S. Patent Documents

3222675 December 1965 Schwartz
4755673 July 1988 Pollack et al.

Primary Examiner: Berman; Jack I. Attorney, Agent or Firm: Sales; Michael W. Denson-Low; Wanda


Claims


What is claimed is: 1. A method of reducing atmospheric warming due to the greenhouse effect resulting from a layer of gases in the atmosphere which absorb strongly near infrared wavelength radiation, comprising the step of dispersing tiny particles of a material within the gases’ layer, the particle material characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity or reflectivity, in that said material has high emissivities with respect to radiation in the visible and far infrared wavelength spectra, and low emissivity in the near infrared wavelength spectrum, whereby said tiny particles provide a means for converting infrared heat energy into far infrared radiation which is radiated into space. 2. The method of claim wherein said material comprises one or more of the oxides of metals. 3. The method of claim 1 wherein said material comprises aluminum oxide. 4. The method of claim 1 wherein said material comprises thorium oxide. 5. The method of claim 1 wherein said particles are dispersed by seeding the stratosphere with a quantity of said particles at altitudes in the range of seven to thirteen kilometers above the earth’s surface. 6. The method of claim 1 wherein the size of said particles is in the range of ten to one hundred microns. 7. The method of claim wherein said material comprises a refractory material. 8. The method of claim 1 wherein said material is a Welsbach material. 9. The method of claim 1 wherein the number of said dispersed particles per unit area in the particle layer is greater than or equal to 1/.sigma..sub.abs 1, where 1 is the thickness of the particle layer and .sigma..sub.abs is the absorption coefficient of the particles at the far infrared wavelengths. 10. A method for reducing atmospheric warming due to the greenhouse effect resulting from a greenhouse gases layer, comprising the following step: seeding the greenhouse gases’ layer with a quantity of tiny particles of a material characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity or reflectivity, in that said materials have high emissivities in the visible and far infrared wavelength spectra and low emissivity in the near infrared wavelength spectrum, whereby said particles are suspended within said gases’ layer and provide a means for converting radiative energy at near infrared wavelengths into radiation at the far infrared wavelengths, permitting some of the converted radiation to escape into space. 11. The method of claim 10 wherein said material comprises one or more of the oxides of metals. 12. The method of claim 10 wherein said material comprises aluminum oxide. 13. The method of claim 10 wherein said material is thorium oxide. 14. The method of claim 10 wherein said seeding is performed at altitudes in the range of seven to thirteen kilometers above the earth’s surface. 15. The method of claim 10 wherein said material comprises a refractory material. 16. The method of claim 10 wherein said particle size is in range of ten to one hundred microns. 17. The method of claim 10 wherein said material is a Welsbach material. 18. The method of claim 10 wherein the number of said dispersed particles per unit area in the particle layer is greater than or equal to 1/.sigma..sub.abs 1, where 1 is the thickness of the particle layer and .sigma..sub.abs is the absorption coefficient of the particles at the far infrared wavelengths.


Description


BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a method for the reduction of global warming resulting from the greenhouse effect, and in particular to a method which involves the seeding of the earth’s stratosphere with Welsbach-like materials. Global warming has been a great concern of many environmental scientists. Scientists believe that the greenhouse effect is responsible for global warming. Greatly increased amounts of heat-trapping gases have been generated since the Industrial Revolution. These gases, such as CO.sub.2, CFC, and methane, accumulate in the atmosphere and allow sunlight to stream in freely but block heat from escaping (greenhouse effect). These gases are relatively transparent to sunshine but absorb strongly the long-wavelength infrared radiation released by the earth. Most current approaches to reduce global warming are to restrict the release of various greenhouse gases, such as CO.sub.2, CFC, and methane. These imply the need to establish new regulations and the need to monitor various gases and to enforce the regulations. One proposed solution to the problem of global warming involves the seeding of the atmosphere with metallic particles. One technique proposed to seed the metallic particles was to add the tiny particles to the fuel of jet airliners, so that the particles would be emitted from the jet engine exhaust while the airliner was at its cruising altitude. While this method would increase the reflection of visible light incident from space, the metallic particles would trap the long wavelength blackbody radiation released from the earth. This could result in net increase in global warming. It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a method for reduction of global warming due to the greenhouse effect which permits heat to escape through the atmosphere. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A method is disclosed for reducing atmospheric warming due to the greenhouse effect resulting from a greenhouse gases layer. The method comprises the step of seeding the greenhouse gas layer with a quantity of tiny particles of materials characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity or reflectivity, in that said materials have high emissivities in the visible and far infrared wavelength regions and low emissivity in the near infrared wavelength region. Such materials can include the class of materials known as Welsbach materials. The oxides of metal, e.g., aluminum oxide, are also suitable for the purpose. The greenhouse gases layer typically extends between about seven and thirteen kilometers above the earth’s surface. The seeding of the stratosphere occurs within this layer. The particles suspended in the stratosphere as a result of the seeding provide a mechanism for converting the blackbody radiation emitted by the earth at near infrared wavelengths into radiation in the visible and far infrared wavelength so that this heat energy may be reradiated out into space, thereby reducing the global warming due to the greenhouse effect. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS These and other features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description of an exemplary embodiment thereof, as illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which: FIG. 1 illustrates a model for the heat trapping phenomenon, i.e., the greenhouse effect. FIG. 2 is a graph illustrating the intensity of sunlight incident on earth and of the earth’s blackbody radiation as a function of wavelength. FIG. 3 is a graph illustrating an ideal emissivity versus wavelength function for the desired particle material. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT FIG. 1 shows a model for the heat-trapping (greenhouse effect) phenomenon. It is assumed that the greenhouse gases are concentrated at altitudes between y=0 (at some altitude Y.sub.1, above the earth’s surface) and y=1. Regardless of the sunshine reflected back into space, i.sub.1 and i.sub.2 denote the shortwavelength sunlight energies that are absorbed by the earth’s surface and the greenhouse gases, respectively. Available data shows that i.sub.1 =0.45 i.sub.sol and i.sub.2 =0.25 i.sub.sol, where i.sub.sol is the total flux from the sun. The short wavelength sunlight heats up the greenhouse gases and the earth surface, and this energy is eventually reradiated out in the long wavelength infrared region. FIG. 2 is a graph illustrating the intensity of sunlight and the earth’s blackbody radiation as a function of wavelength. As illustrated, some 30% of the sunlight energy is in the near infrared region. The earth’s blackbody radiation, on the other hand, is at the far infrared wavelength. Referring again to FIG. 1, I.sub.s, I.sub.+, I.sub.-, I.sub.g and I.sub.e represent the fluxes in the infrared wavelength region, where I.sub.s and I.sub.g are the fluxes reradiated by the greenhouse gases toward the sky and ground, respectively; I.sub.e is the flux reradiated by the earth; and I.sub.+ and I.sub.- are fluxes within the gases radiating toward the space and ground, respectively. I.sub.+ and I.sub.- are functions of y, e.g., I.sub.+ (0) is the I.sub.+ flux at y=0. Considering the principles of energy conservation and continuity at boundaries, the following relationships are obtained: where R.sub.o, R.sub.l and R are the reflectivities at the y=0 and y=1 boundaries and at the earth’s surface. I.sub.BB (T.sub.e) is the blackbody radiation flux at the earth’s temperature T.sub.e. Within the greenhouse gases’ layer, the energy equations are where I.sub.BB (T.sub.g) is the blackbody radiation flux at the greenhouse gases’ temperature T.sub.g, and .alpha. is the absorption coefficient of the gases. The solutions of equations 8 and 9 are given by equations 10 and 11: To illustrate the effects of R.sub.o and R.sub.l on the green-house effect, the extreme case is considered wherein a high concentration of greenhouse gases has strong absorption in the infrared region; that is, for y=1, e.sup.-.alpha.l approaches 0. Then, using Equations 3 and 4, the relationships of Equations 12 and 13 are obtained. From Equations 5 and 7, or From Equations 2 and 1, or Combining Equations 14 and 15, the relationship of Equation 16 is obtained. Finally, Equation 6 gives the blackbody radiation from the earth’s surface in terms of i.sub.1 and i.sub.2 and the three reflectivities: or To achieve a lower temperature of the earth, (considering i.sub.1, i.sub.2 and R as constants), it is desirable to make R and R.sub.l as small as possible. Known refractory materials have a thermal emissivity function which is strongly wavelength dependent. For example, the materials may have high emissivity (and absorption) at the far infrared wavelengths, high emissivity in the visible wavelength range, and very low emissivity at intermediate wavelengths. If a material having those emissivity characteristics and a black body are exposed to IR energy of equal intensity, the selective thermal radiator will emit visible radiation with higher efficiency (if radiation cooling predominates), i.e., the selective thermal radiator will appear brighter than the black body. This effect is known as the Welsbach effect and is extensively used in commercial gas lantern mantles. Welsbach materials have the characteristic of wavelength-dependent emissivity (or reflectivity). For example, thorium oxide (ThO.sub.2) has high emissivities in the visible and far IR regions but it has low emissivity in the near IR region. So, in accordance with the invention, the layer of greenhouse gases is seeded with Welsbach or Welsbach-like materials which have high emissivities (and thus low reflectivities) in the visible and 8-12 micrometer infrared regions, which has the effect of reducing R.sub.o and R.sub.l while introducing no effect in the visible range. A desired material for the stratospheric seeding has a reflection coefficient close to unity for near IR radiation, and a reflection coefficient close to zero (or emissity close to unity) for far IR radiation. FIG. 3 is a graph illustrating an ideal emissivity versus wavelength function for the desired material. Another class of materials having the desired property includes the oxides of metals. For example, aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3) is one metal oxide suitable for the purpose and which is relatively inexpensive. It is presently believed that particle sizes in the ten to one hundred micron range would be suitable for the seeding purposes. Larger particles would tend to settle to the earth more quickly. The particles in the required size range can be obtained with conventional methods of grinding and meshing. It is believed that the number of particles n.sub.d per unit area in the particle layer should be defined by Equation 18: where 1 is the thickness of the particle layer and .sigma..sub.abs is the absorption coefficient of the particles at the long IR wavelengths. One crude estimate of the density of particles is given by Equation (19): where c is the speed of light, m is the average particle mass, e is the electron charge, and w is the absorption line width in sec.sup.-1. The greenhouse gases are typically in the earth’s stratosphere at an altitude of seven to thirteen kilometers. This suggests that the particle seeding should be done at an altitude on the order of 10 kilometers. The particles may be seeded by dispersal from seeding aircraft; one exemplary technique may be via the jet fuel as suggested by prior work regarding the metallic particles. Once the tiny particles have been dispersed into the atmosphere, the particles may remain in suspension for up to one year. It is understood that the above-described embodiment is merely illustrative of the possible specific embodiments which may represent principles of the present invention. Other arrangements may readily be devised in accordance with these principles by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. * * * * *


Protests in Gainsville here.   One protestor notes the intensity of the sun has gotten worse with the chemtrails.  I agree — it was especially bad in Fort Wayne with the chemtrail spraying.  It normally doesn’t hit the 90s in June, but in all the years I was there, it hit 90 early in June and it was exhaustive heat.  Given my already toxic system, it was probably worse for me than those whom aren’t as stricken.  However, there were an awful lot of people there with respiratory illnesses.  People my age or within ten years were having issues just breathing.  As has been pointed out with vaccination, I have never seen so many sick people.   As I’ve said before, mercury poisoned folk are the canaries in the coal mine, and we are much more sensitive to this stuff–and that includes Electro-magnetic fields (EMF’s).  When I heard that the Navy yard shooter, Aaron Alexis, thought microwaves were being used against him, I wondered if he were toxic and experiencing the personal hell that they cause? Just recently, while in a classroom with a “smart board” (yet another electronic gadget for classrooms that really does not help the kids to learn but gee whiz look at what it can do!), I had the overhead LCD projector on, plus the computer, which is wired into the smartboard, and the “wand” that the teacher uses to project onto the screen.  I had to shut both the wand and the LCD off because I became severely nauseated and my adrenals were starting to weaken–I was afraid they would crash.  Within a half hour after turning them off, my nausea went away.

Protests in London.  They are asserting that it is a program for population control.  You know, before I read the paper on vaccines with hormones in them to cause sterilization, I would have said “no way” to this assertion.  Now?  Well, let’s just say the jury is still out on that.  I’m not saying they are, but keeping an open mind.

An interesting video here that states they were found to contain aluminum, barium, and another substance that was not there previously. Note that they were started in the late 90s, which would be under….wait for it….Bill Clinton’s Administration.

I remembered that Bill Gates was connected to chemtrails, but my memory was fuzzy.  This page explains his once again playing the Knight on a White Horse to save us all but in reality causing more harm and destruction.

Finally, a link off of the last link — a U.S. veteran training in environmental toxins, speaks out on her observations.   I’m not a fan of Infowars, but this report does hold valuable information.  I was with them until the end where she stated they would be carrying guns.  Yeah, not a fan of that….